Bahasa Isyarat dan Kelas Inklusi
Classroom Strategies For Communication And Instruction
Working With Deaf Students And Interpreters
- Avoid giving instructions or lecturing when students are doing work. The deaf student cannot do his/her work and attend to the interpreter at the same time. If instructions need to be given, be sure there is a short lag time for the student to look up from doing their work to be able to “see” the instructions.
- There is always a delay between the spoken thought and the interpretation. Remember to give time for the interpreter to process and relay the information.
- When asking a question, let the interpreter finish interpreting, then give deaf students sufficient time to process the question and volunteer or raise a query before calling on a student.
- Have no more than one person talk at a time. Encourage students to raise their hands before speaking so that the interpreter and deaf students can identify the current speaker. It is a good idea to make it a rule that no one speak or sign without first being recognized by the teacher.
- Provide the interpreter any handouts, extra books, worksheets, etc. ahead of time to preview so they can become familiar with specific vocabulary.
- If you must leave the classroom, do not expect the Interpreter to monitor or discipline the class. The Interpreter may remain in the classroom to interpret any interactions that occur between students, or the interpreter may step out in the hallway and wait until you return to the classroom.
- Repeat and reinforce key points if some deaf students appear lost or if one of them gives an incorrect response.
- When teaching English, avoid an auditory based response, such as "It sounds right." Describe explicitly the grammatical basis of a correct usage.
- To get their attention, tap a student on the shoulder, arm, or desk. Wave to the student if he or she is at a distance.
- Make use of heightened facial expressions, gestures, and direct eye contact, but be careful not to over exaggerate expressions or mouth movements.
- Speak directly to a deaf student and expect him or her to respond directly to you. Avoid saying, "Tell her (him) to do that."
- Learn some survival or basic sign vocabulary, such as Okay, Good Work, Wonderful, Congratulations, or Right. Deaf Students will appreciate such praise and positive reinforcement.
- Simple gestures and smiles can be used to show personal interest or to convey approval.
- Talk in front of a student rather than behind.
- Encourage hearing students to communicate with deaf classmates by writing, signing, or fingerspelling.
- When ordering films and videotapes for use in the classroom check for ones that are captioned. This not only benefits the deaf students, but also helps hearing students develop better reading skills.
- Try to be as “visual” as possible. Write on the blackboard, use different examples of giving directions or desired result.
Interpreters relay information from one distinct language to another distinct language, always conveying the content and spirit of the speaker, using language most readily understood by the person(s) they serve.
Communication Link: Think of an interpreter as a telephone. The telephone only facilitates communication, it is not able to give opinions, feedback, or instructions. The interpreter - like the telephone - will facilitate everything he/she hears, even if it is personal, confidential or unrelated to the topic at hand. Any information you discuss in the presence of an interpreter and a deaf student will be interpreted.
Do I need to slow down? Slowing one's natural speech patterns is not usually necessary for interpreters; if the interpreter misses something or feels the teacher is going too fast, the interpreter will ask you to repeat the information.
Who do you look at? When using an interpreter, always maintain eye contact with the deaf individual. This is why we encourage hearing consumers and interpreters to stand next to each other. This encourages the hearing consumer to look at the deaf individual instead of the interpreter. It also lets the deaf person know the information is coming from the teacher not the interpreter.
Who do I speak to? When speaking to the deaf student address the student, not the Interpreter, for example say “Do you have your homework today”, instead of "Ask her if she has her homework today."
Voicing - The interpreter will always use first person, both in signing and voicing. When the interpreter suddenly blurts out "I don't understand this stuff!", it is not a joke nor the interpreter's own complaint -- it is the student requesting help.
Confidentiality - Interpreters must follow a strict code of ethics, one of which is Confidentiality. By Texas law, interpreters are not allowed to discuss ANY information about a consumer (deaf or hearing) during or after an interpreting assignment. Asking the interpreter "Do you know this person?" or "Do you know anything about this situation?" is inappropriate. (Remember the telephone example.)
Opinions - Interpreters are not to share their opinions. Interpreters can not discuss their feelings with you about an interpreting assignment. Please do not share information with interpreters about students or families that is unrelated to the assignment.
Discipline is the teacher's responsibility. This is for all students in the class – both deaf and hearing.
Inattention to the interpreter means inattention to the teacher, to the class, to the information. Remind the student to pay attention to the interpreter as often as necessary (just as you would with a hearing student).
You may have one or two interpreters in your classroom. If the deaf student is in the mainstream classroom less than 1 1/2 to 2 hours one interpreter will be there to facilitate communication. If the student remains for more than 1 1/2 to 2 hours, two interpreters will switch off every 20-30 minutes. Interpreting involves processing information and switching from one language to another language which can be both mentally and physically taxing. If you have one interpreter it would be good to change from lecture to independent work every 30 to 45 minutes to help the interpreter and the deaf student. This gives the interpreter a physical break and the deaf student an eye break.
- Be on time to class.
- Sit where the student can easily see you, the Teacher, and the blackboard.
- Become familiar with special vocabulary. Request textbooks, handouts, and materials ahead of time for review before class.
- Wear appropriate clothing. Look neat and professional.
- Act in a professional manner. Do not bring undue attention to yourself while interpreting. Do not carry on personal conversations with the student or the Teacher.
- Refer student questions or problems to the Teacher. Clarify points when needed, but do not assume the Teacher's role.
- Do not discipline, monitor student behavior, or assume instructional responsibilities.
- Communicate to the Teacher any problems concerning the deaf student.
- Be on time to class.
- Sit where you can easily see the Interpreter, the Teacher, and the blackboard.
- Bring appropriate materials and supplies to class.
- Do not ask the Interpreter to tell you what you missed or did not understand. Do not expect the Interpreter to write down your homework assignments or help you with your work.
- Do not talk to the Interpreter during class. Watch the Interpreter during lectures and discussions.
- If you have a question about the lesson or your homework ask the Teacher, not the Interpreter.
- Participate in class discussions. Be responsible for doing class assignments, homework, projects, etc.
- Assist the deaf student and interpreter in finding the best seating arrangement where the student can see the Teacher, the Interpreter, and the blackboard.
- Speak directly to the deaf student not the Interpreter when asking questions. Use the blackboard or printed material for information (assignments, tests, projects, etc.) the student is expected to learn.
- Follow the same discipline plan for all students unless the IEP states differently. Do not expect the Interpreter to tutor, discipline, monitor student behavior, or assume instructional responsibilities.
- When possible, give the Interpreter printed materials prior to use in the classroom. Do not ask the Interpreter to run errands, make copies, or other aide duties unless it is in the job description.
- Encourage participation. Include deaf students in the class discussions. Remind student he/she needs to attend to the Interpreter and Teacher, and be a part of the class.
- Encourage the deaf student to socialize with classmates when appropriate.
CODE OF CONDUCT
The CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT of the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. (RID), shall govern the professional conduct of interpreters/transliterators certified by the Office.
- Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication.
- Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
- Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
- Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.
- Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.
- Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
- Interpreters engage in professional development.
Interpreters must keep all information confidential. If the persons who are deaf and hearing did not require facilitation of communication, the interpreter would not be there at all. Interpreters may share information regarding the student’s Individual Educational Plan (IEP) with members of the educational team only.
There are some circumstances when confidential information may be divulged. Interpreters should not discuss these situations with other interpreters, staff or students.
Example: It is a Federal Law to report child abuse. If an interpreter knows or suspects that a student is being abused at home or school, they must report it. The interpreter should follow the school’s policy on reporting child abuse. The interpreter may also call the Child Abuse Hotline and report the abuse. They should do this with their supervisor and document that the call was made.
Example: If an interpreter is hurt while on the job, they may give required information to the insurance company, employers, and legal authorities.
Example: If it is in the interpreter’s job description or the school’s policy, the interpreter is responsible for reporting serious behavior such as weapons or physical endangerment. Interpreter’s would be expected to report serious behavior of both deaf and hearing students. Incidents should be reported to the interpreter’s supervisor or appropriate administration as stated in the school’s policy.
Interpreters may go to a more experienced Interpreter for advice or help with their skills. Both Interpreters must understand that any information shared is confidential, and should not include names, dates, and places even if it is common knowledge.
Section 82.002 and 82.003 of the Human Resources Code protect the confidentiality of conversations involving persons who can hear and persons who are hearing impaired or speech impaired. As of September 1, 1991, qualified interpreters and relay agents "may not disclose or be compelled to disclose" the contents of conversations which they are employed to facilitate. Interpreters or relay agents cannot be required to break this confidentiality even under threat of subpoena. The disclosure of the contents of a conversation, without the consent of each party to the conversation, is a violation of law and a Class C misdemeanor.
Interpreter/Transliterator shall render the message faithfully, always conveying the content and spirit of the speaker, using language most readily understood by the person(s) whom they serve.
An Interpreter may not add or delete any of the message either for the persons who are deaf or hearing. The Interpreter must also show the feeling or intent of the speaker. They should not add more facial grammar than necessary, or not use any facial expression. Interpreters must be neutral, and not show their personal feelings.
The Interpreter should be able to interpret in a way easily understood, using the language best understood by the deaf student, and following the Individual Educational Plan (IEP).
Interpreters cannot “take sides” either for the deaf or hearing persons. Interpreters are not to "feel sorry" for deaf students and try to "help" them. They should not talk without signing in front of the deaf person, or sign without talking in front of the hearing person.
Interpreter/Transliterator shall not counsel, advise or interject personal opinions.
Interpreters may not give advice to the deaf or hearing persons during or after the assignment. Remember that interpreters are not teachers, and are not always the expert in a situation just because they can hear and/or sign. Interpreters are not counselors or personal representatives. Interpreters should only facilitate communication. Interpreters are only in a situation because of communication needs and requirements.
Example: If the Interpreter does not agree with the teacher, they cannot make comments or show by their expression to the deaf or hearing person that they do not agree.
Example: The classroom teacher should handle all discipline. The role of the Educational Interpreter is to facilitate communication, and to guide the deaf student towards independent use of interpreters.
Example: Sometimes an interpreter also works as an Interpreter/Tutor, etc. In these jobs they are expected to follow the job description, but also to follow the Code of Ethics. Tutoring should only be done under the Teacher’s direction and guidance. It is recommended that if the IEP states the interpreter also functions as a tutor this should be done in a different area of the classroom, or that the interpreter have a particular chair that is used for interpreting. This is to help the deaf student to understand that the role of interpreter and tutor are different
Interpreter/Transliterator shall accept assignments using discretion with regards to skill, setting and the consumers involved.
Interpreters should not accept assignments if they do not have the qualifications and/or certification for the job.
Example: An Interpreter should not interpret in a medical emergency if they faint at the sight of blood.
Example: The Interpreter should not interpret in legal or medical situations if they do not have the skill and/or certification. Interpreters who do not have the appropriate certification should turn down requests to interpret in areas that may lead to criminal prosecution, and/or serious medical situations.
Tx. Code of Criminal Procedure, Article 38.22, Section 3 (a) and (d) and Article 38.31 (a) Sections (a)-(g) and the Texas Government Code, Section 62.1041, require that in criminal court, a qualified interpreter must be provided for a defendant who is deaf at an arraignment, hearing, examining trial, or trial, and must be provided for a juror who is deaf, including jury deliberation.
The Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code, Section 21.001-21.009, requires that in civil court, a qualified interpreter must be provided for a person who is deaf that is a party or witness to the proceedings or is a juror.
The Texas Code of Criminal Procedures and the Texas Civil Practice and Remedies Code define what is meant by the requirements for use of a "qualified interpreter" by listing the types of acceptable certification for interpreters in courts. These acceptable certificate levels are Levels III, IV, or V, or equivalent from the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) as determined by TCDHH and BEI.
The American with Disabilities Act (P.L. 101-336) of 1990, also known as the ADA Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 79.
ARD meeting, medical or legal situations should not be interpreted by family members. Family members often become too emotionally involved to be able to interpret appropriately. If they must interpret in an emergency it should be understood they are there as a family member, and not as a professional interpreter.
If there is an obvious personality conflict between the interpreter and deaf student they should not work together unless it is an emergency.
Interpreter/Transliterator shall request compensation for services in a professional and judicious manner.
All agreements about pay scales, salary increases, extracurricular activities and overtime should be made before beginning employment. Interpreters should be paid according to their certification level and/or the pay scale established by the school district. Interpreters may volunteer at appropriate times, but should not continually accept assignments without being compensated. Interpreting is a profession, and professional fees should be expected for services rendered.
Interpreter/Transliterator shall function in a manner appropriate to the situation.
Interpreters are to be appropriate in Dress, Manner, Grooming, and Attitude:
DRESS: Interpreters should dress appropriately for the situation. They should wear solid colors that contrast with their skin tone. Solid colors are best, usually in dark green, dark blue, or dark brown for light skinned people, and white, light blue, and light green for dark skinned people. Interpreters should dress professionally as the teacher would be dressed, or dressed to emulate the professional.
Interpreters should be careful not to be distracting by wearing things such as long dangling earrings, necklaces, bracelets, etc. Most watches and rings would be acceptable since they are not distracting.
Casual dress sometimes is necessary and Interpreters may wear blue jeans, tennis shoes, appropriate shorts, etc. This type of dress is suitable for situations such as P.E. classes, auto mechanics classes, other vocational classes, field trips, sporting events, emergency interpreting, etc.
MANNER: Interpreters should act professional in all situations. They should not bring attention to themselves with inappropriate movements such as clapping or whispering while signing. They should also be careful not to overdo stretching, making noises, constantly flipping back hair, pushing up eyeglasses, scratching nose, or adjusting clothing. NO gum chewing!
If the Interpreter makes a mistake they should try to maintain composure and continue interpreting. This will cause less embarrassment for everyone involved.
GROOMING: Interpreters should be careful not to wear too much make up, have long fingernails, or bright polish. Beards and mustaches should be neatly trimmed, and the area around the lips should be easily seen. Fingernails should be clean. Clothing should be clean and neat.
ATTITUDE: Interpreters should have a good attitude and show pride in their profession. It is important to be a team member. They should arrive on time for class, and be dependable in all phases of their job. They should try to help communication flow smoothly between the deaf and hearing persons. Interpreters should not be disruptive or have a bad attitude. (Remember we represent the school faculty and we are also a role model for students.)
Interpreter/Transliterator shall strive to further knowledge and skills through participation in workshops, professional meetings, interaction with professional colleagues, and reading of current literature in the field.
Interpreters should attend workshops to help improve their skills. They should join organizations that will help them learn to become more professional, and keep up with new developments in the field of interpreting.
Interpreter/Transliterator shall strive to maintain high professional standards in compliance with the Standards of Ethical Behavior.
Interpreters should always strive to be professional and follow the Code of Ethics. Interpreters should function as a member of the school faculty and should conduct their actions accordingly.