Terkini di PLD:

Cara Mengajar Tunarungu di Kelas Inklusi

Di kampus inklusif UIN Sunan Kalijaga, kita memiliki 10 orang mahasiswa tunurungu yang di antaranya mungkin akanbertemu dengan kita di salah satu semester yang kita ajar. Kami di PLD tidak pernah mengatakan bahwa mengajar di kelas inklusi itu "mudah". Mengajar di kelas inklusi tentu saja memerlukan ekstra komitmen dari dosen, ekstra srategi mengajar dan ekstra modifikasi mata kuliah agar bisa diakses semua mahasiswa.

Dua seri video turoial yang diproduksi oleh Fakultas Pendidikan UNC di Chapel Hill berikut akan sangat berguna bagi teman-teman yang ingin mengajar dengan baik di kelas inklusi.


Transcript Video 1

Kathy Metzer (00:08)
I believe that every child can learn, even if they come with multiple disabilities with that deafness, or they come and they are just deaf.  But I think they all can learn, somehow, some way.  So we work hard to try to make that happen.
Kathy Metzer [talking with students in classroom, using sign language and speech] (00:27)
Why do you think that Granddad wanted to walk to a high hill?  Why not low hill? 
Student [in sign language, translated by Kathy] (00:39)
Because the high hill we can stand and see everything below.  If it’s a low hill, you won’t be able to see because of the trees and everything. So, my favorite, it’s best — Mole says — my favorite. We go up and walk.
Kathy Metzer (01:03)
Student [in sign language, translated by Kathy] (01:04)
The beautiful trees, we walk for a long time.
Kathy Metzer [in sign language and speech] (01:11)
Very good!
Martha Overman (01:13)
I wish that all teachers knew that deaf students are very capable.  And just to hold them to the same expectations as they would any child.
Ms. Dickson (01:23)
Okay, and how about over here?  Who wants to share?
Student [answering in sign language, translated by an interpreter] (1:34)
I think he’s in the middle of nowhere and he’s just having dreams.
Ms. Dickson (01:36)
Any particular dreams?
Student [answering in sign language, translated by an interpreter] [01:42]
Maybe he’s in like a boat or something, and he gets shot out of it and into a tree.
Ms. Dickson (01:57)
Student [answering in sign language, translated by an interpreter] [01:57]
And he wakes up and sees where he is, he looks around, doesn’t know where he is.
Ms. Dickson (02:01)
Alright, let’s, okay, let’s see.
Martha Overman (02:04)
Treat them just like any other child; if they’re not paying attention, if they’re not doing what they’re supposed to do, you know, the teacher needs to treat them just like everybody else.  Sometimes I think people think “Oh, it’s the poor deaf child” and they tend to give them a lot more room when it comes to discipline and stuff a lot of times. And also academically.  Most of the children, not all, but a lot of the children here have pretty good language and are doing very well in the classroom.  Just, you know, try to remember to treat them the same you would any other child as far as what you expect from them academically; homework, reading, their math, anything else with the other classes.
Mary V. Compton, Ph.D. (02:46)
The most important thing is to have high expectations for the deaf students.  Although deaf students are extremely individual in terms of the previous background that they’ve had, whether or not they’ve had any type of early intervention, does the child come from a home in which the parents know signing, if they’ve selected signing for the child, does the child come from a background where English is not the child’s home language.  So there are many different factors that are involved in thinking about what’s appropriate for a deaf student.  The family, of course, is the biggest determiner of that, in terms of mode of communication, and family support.  But I would say generally for a regular classroom teacher to have high expectations of a deaf student.  But realize that deaf students enter schooling with different types of knowledge, different types of experiences.
Kathy Metzer (03:36)
I think the regular classroom teacher, in order to educate the deaf student, really needs to know about that student, just like she would the hearing students in the classroom, and get to know the background of the student, because that plays an important role when the child comes in day after day.  I also think it’s important for them to learn about Deaf culture, and what that brings with the child, as well as deafness itself.  You know, how greatly deafness impacts the language with the deaf child.  The regular teacher needs to learn about the mode of communication that the child may use.  Some of our students use American Sign Language, some of our students it’s more Pidgin, but it would be important for them to understand that there is a difference.
Mary V. Compton, Ph.D. (04:32)
I would probably advise a regular classroom teacher to consult with the teacher of the deaf, who probably has the primary information about the student.  I do think that it’s very important that the regular classroom teacher knows, what are the child’s interests?  Is the child interested in sports, what types of activities does the family do, because that way, you could make some real life connections and lessons to what the child is interested in, and therefore, it’s going, the information, the heavy academic information is going to be more accessible to them, and more relatable to them.
Martha Overman (05:08)
When I’ve taken sign language classes a lot, one of the first things they did was kind of to dispel a lot of the rumors people think about deaf people, you know, that deaf people can’t drive, they read Braille, or they think, you know, there’s just a lot of silly little things that often times people don’t know or don’t realize.
Kathy Metzer (05:25)
I had one regular ed teacher who did share that, you know, she didn’t realize how often deaf — profoundly deaf — kids will make little noises.  And, you know, I was like, “that’s good to know,” because then if we do have a teacher who has never had a deaf child, it’s good to let them know, “well, they might make these little noises because, you know, they’re not totally silent.”
Kathy Metzer [in classroom] (05:50)
Ask Ryan.
Kathy Metzer (05:51)
We do a lot of teaching the pragmatics of language, you know, what’s appropriate to say, what’s not appropriate responses you give to people for questions they might ask.  We do lots of role-playing and try to work on the social skills, because they have to be taught.  Some of the other factors are really learning the child as an individual.  Some of our children need just a little bit, some of our children have greater needs.  And that, you know, the regular ed teacher knows what those are and is sensitive to that.  And some of it we learn by doing.  Some of the grades they may play a variety of games to learn concepts, like Jeopardy and things like that, so we’ve learned that in order for the deaf student to be successful and to participate, you’ve got to give the lag time, because the interpreter has to sign some things, and so we change how you might play the game, or we, the teacher might have to count to three before anyone can push the buzzer.  So, you know, I find the willingness of a teacher to make those changes, to accommodate, that I have a child that has special needs in the classroom.  That is just a great thing.

Transcript Video 2
Kathy Metzer (00:10)
Often, depending on the hearing loss, the deaf student might benefit — or if we have a child that’s more hard of hearing — would benefit from being able to see the teacher as well as the educational interpreter.   So we have to help them learn not to turn around and write on the board and talk at the same time. Help them learn to talk directly to the deaf child, versus looking at the interpreter and saying, “Tell him or tell her.”
Mary V. Compton, Ph.D. (00:45)
Generally speaking, a deaf child needs to be near the front, but not so near that the child can’t turn around and see what’s going on behind them. It’s important for a deaf student to know what’s going on around them in the classroom, because many times there’s a little lag time, say the teacher calls on another student to answer, by the time the child, a deaf student, has attended to what that other student has said, the answer has gone through the air, whether it’s through audition, or through signs.   So, and think about how we learn a lot of information as hearing people through context, through overhearing other people say things, so a deaf student can miss that, so many times it would be very helpful if a regular classroom teacher could reiterate what the other student has said.   That gives the deaf student a little more processing time to understand what the content of the answer was.
Kathy Metzer (01:40)
Go before school starts and see how the classroom is set up and talk to the teacher about where would be the best place for the deaf child to sit and the interpreter. And look at that in, okay, now if you go and read a story, where do we need the interpreter to be and the deaf child.  So a lot of it’s educating. And we do that; the interpreter helps out with that role, as well as myself. So, I’m a firm believe that it has to be a team effort.
Interpreter (02:20)
Ms. Dixon, can you see this right here?
Ms. Dixon (02:21)
I can.   I can.
[classroom chatter]
Mary V. Compton, Ph.D. (02:29)
Think about the acoustics of the classroom.  Many times teachers use tennis balls on the bottom of chairs because if you’ve ever listened through a hearing aid to something scraping, it’s almost like scraping your nails against a blackboard, and that’s very uncomfortable.  I think there are some things in general that would lead to a deaf student’s success in a regular classroom, but there are some modifications in the instructional procedures that can contribute to a deaf child’s success.  Manipulative objects, using a lot of real objects, that can be very helpful, because that helps the deaf child transfer the information from real life experiences to the classroom, and help make those connections.  So really what you’re trying to do is to help the child make connections between this academic content that they already know, to the new information, and to experiences in their real life.  
Kathy Metzer (03:29)
Some of the things, is, of course, if the teacher can give the books or the videos, even, we usually get the lesson plans from the teacher the week before, like the Thursday or Friday before the next week.  So the interpreter and I know what they’re going to teach. And that way if we need to pre-teach anything we can.  I work closely with them in to try to pre-teach, because I think that’s a very valuable piece so that, the deaf child then has more confidence. And you know, okay, I’ve seen this before, I think I can, you know, I know the answers. It’s a lot of effort. But it’s good, it’s fun.
Kathy Metzer [in classroom to students in sign language] (04:19)
Tonight you will take your reading books home. Read the story one more time with your mom, you can read it to your sister Jewel if you want, okay? Then tomorrow, what’s going to happen?  You’ll have to take your little short test about the story, okay?
Mary V. Compton, Ph.D. (04:37)  
Some other things that you could do also is to, to give like maybe pre-tests of the information to see what does the child really know about something.  Questioning strategies and helping the deaf students make inferences and connections between the information is also very helpful.  You can use question prompts, and what you do when you do question prompts is, let’s say you ask the question initially, and you either see confusion on the child’s face or “I don’t know what you’re talking about.” One thing you can do is to repeat the question, or to reiterate or rephrase the question.  Then if you’re still not getting any response, you could maybe use a picture prompt or a picture clue to give the child some additional context.  If that doesn’t work, you could almost use, let’s say an elliptical sentence, or give the child some choices, and let the child make a choice of one of the possibilities there. What you’re doing in that, you’re helping frame the information for the student to help them put the contextual clues in there. So there’s a whole series that Luetke-Stahlman and Luckner have developed; they’re like ways of reiterating questions, or, I call it back-stepping, because you start up here at a certain level with the initial question, then if that’s not successful, there are certain steps you can take to get the child to answer correctly. But once you get the correct answer, you need to go back and put it in context.
Kathy Metzer [in classroom to students in sign language] (06:11)
Okay, but why do you think it’s hard to take care of a baby bird, do you think hard or easy? Hard? Why? Why? What for?
Student [in sign language, translated by Kathy] (06:19)
It’s a lot of work
Kathy Metzer [in sign language and speech] (06:24)
What else Ryan? Tell me another idea. Why is it hard, what for, to take care of a baby bird. Think, remember when we read stories, we use what we already know.
Student (06:44)
I know!
Kathy Metzer [in sign language and speech] (06:44)
Do baby birds live inside houses, or outside with the trees?
Student (06:50)
Kathy Metzer [in sign language and speech] (06:50)
Normally? Normally a baby bird lives outside with other birds, they [makes swishing noise], right? Okay.
Mary V. Compton, Ph.D. (07:02)
So it’s this sort of subtle between the student and the teacher, it’s, you’re constantly repeating the information, but it’s not like you’re sitting there, you know, just sort of rote repetition, you’re in your conversations, you’re using that vocabulary in different kinds of sentences. So you’re letting the child see or hear the new vocabulary so that he or she just becomes integrated into the child’s experience. That’s very important, it’s in a conversational style

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